Spaldings catchfly reproduces only by seed. Best fertilization is achieved by outcrossing (pollination by pollen from another plant) (Lescia 1993). The primary pollinator is the bumblebee Bombus fervidus, which accounts for over 80 percent of all pollinator visits across its range. Other pollinators noted visiting the catchfly included solitary bees, a wasp, and a night-pollinating moth species (USFWS 2007). The presence of nonnative plants can reduce reproductive success by increasing competition for pollinators and reducing their visits to Spaldings catchfly. Seed dispersal is thought to be primarily by wind dispersal over short distances; however, some seed dispersal likely occurs over longer distances when portions of the plant break off and stick to the fur of passing mammals (USFWS 2007).The intermountain region of the Pacific Northwest typically experiences dry, hot summers and cool, moist winter months. Most plants cope with this climate by slow growth during the fall and winter months, significant growth during the spring months, and falling dormant by mid summer (Daubenmire 1970, Tisdale 1983). Spaldings catchfly does not follow this pattern - it emerges in late spring, grows throughout the summer months, flowers starting in July and continuing at some sites until early October, and is dormant during the winter (Hill and Gray 2004). Fire likely plays an important ecological role in grasslands and shrub-steppe habitats where Spaldings catchfly occurs. It is thought that before fire suppression started, wildfires likely burned during the hot dry summers, but the frequency of historic fires is not known and hard to determine. Today, prescribed fires are used as a management tool, but the lands are burned during the cooler, fall months. Therefore, the fire regime of Spaldings catchfly has changed dramatically in the past century. The affects of prescribed fire on Spaldings catchfly and its habitat has been studied at several sites in Montana and Idaho (USFWS 2007). In all studies, adult plants survive fire, often producing more flowers in the subsequent year. However, seed set was lower at some sites, and seedling recruitment may also be impacted. Timing and intensity of the burn, in addition to characteristics of the site such as species composition, fuel loads and moisture content, are likely significant factors in determining how Spaldings catchfly responds to prescribed burning (Lesica 1997, Lesica 1999, Menke 2003, USFWS 2007).Livestock grazing has played a significant role in shaping Spaldings catchflys habitat in the past century and has direct and indirect negative effects on survival of the species. Individual plants are damaged or destroyed by removal of flowers or seeds and by trampling. Trampling may also destroy some of its pollinators, including the ground-dwelling pollinator Bombus fervidus. Livestock can also cause significant habitat degradation that results in alteration of plant communities and increased invasive species colonization. These impacts are considered to be more severe in regions that did not historically host large, hooved animals such as the intermountain area west of the Rocky Mountains where Spaldings catchfly occurs (USFWS 2007).