Endemic to the leeward side of the island of Hawaii. The number of wild trees of this species is down to fewer than 10. Perhaps the biggest threat to the survival of the species has been the invasion of its habitat by alien fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum), which has contributed to an increase in the size and frequency of wildfires in the region. Other threats include feral goats and grazing by cattle.
As stated by the USFWS recovery plan (1994), threats include:
Cattle browsing and trampling
Rodent seed predation
Competition with invading exotic species, especially fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum), which has contributed to an increase in the s
There are less than ten trees left in the wild in three small populations. (PIRG 1998)
This species is cultivated by a number of gardens and arboreta in Hawaii.
Acquire management rights for lands essential to the continued existence of the species
Terminate grazing leases on this land and remove livestock from it
Fence the area to protect the trees from neighboring domestic and feral animals
Initiate and maintain controls for the insects and rodents that eat t the seeds
Remove fountain grass
Monitor the population
Maintain a cultivated population to preserve the existing gene pool
Seed bank seeds
Artificially propagate trees for reintroduction programs
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