Propagation From Cuttings
For long-lived species that produce seeds out of reach in time and space or for species like vines or herbaceous species, cuttings may be an easy way to obtain material.
Plan to collect cuttings at a season when tissue is not overly soft or hard.
- For herbaceous species with fleshy stems, select intermediate aged tissue. Avoid new growth and tissue that is overly lignified or woody.
- For woody species, such as shrubs or trees, collect shoot cuttings before woodiness develops.
Sterilize tools before and after taking a cutting.
Protect cuttings while transporting from field to nursery.
- Wrap cut stems in moist paper towel and place into sealable plastic bag for transport.
- Transport in a cooler.
- Place in refrigerator until ready to process – no more than 1 day.
Identify location of buds and nodes so that you can orient your cuttings.
Trim cuttings from end distal to shoot tip such that there are 3 to 4 nodes on a cutting.
- Remove any flowers and up to 50% of leaf material to reduce water stress.
Reduce opportunities for contamination.
- Sterilize incoming plant tissues in 10% bleach solution for 10 minutes. Note you may vary these concentrations and timing based on the sensitivity of the species you propagate.
- Use safety precautions and personal protection equipment (PPE) when working with bleach.
- After bleaching, place in fresh sterilized water to maximize turgor pressure in cells.
Encourage root growth from stem cuttings.
- Dip basal clipped end into rooting hormone and place into sterile media such as perlite in container.
- One example of a sterile media: 70% perlite, 15% vermiculite, 15% peat moss, and 1 Tbs. of oyster shell. Adjust media based upon the growing conditions in your nursery.
- Using bottom heat may encourage root growth in some species.
- Some species may root quickly, while others may require months. This can vary across individuals within a species as well!
Seek the Goldilocks condition – not overly wet and not too dry.
- Maintain under mist in partial shade (10-100 W/m2/ day or ~ 50 – 75% shade) and DO NOT ALLOW TO DRY OUT!
- Note that some species will not like misting. Their meristems will rot, so it is best to check daily to look for problems.
- It is best to control moisture delivery by a clock timer or an “electronic leaf.”
- Check controllers frequently to adjust as needed when weather changes.
- Optimal temperatures for rooting cuttings are 65-77 ± 3°F.
Maintain labels on cuttings to distinguish different maternal lines throughout the propagation process.
For more information, see Missouri Botanical Garden’s guide to propagation by cuttings.
Propagation From Division
For plants with specialized storage roots, (rhizomes, tubers or bulbs), or species with adventitious bulbs, pull sections apart and transplant smaller units into individual pots.
For plants with massive root systems (grasses, Carex, Juncus, clonal species), break or pull whole portions of the mat apart. Some are so tough that it is possible to saw them apart.
Maintain labels on propagules to distinguish different maternal lines throughout the propagation process.