Pollination ecology studied by Ehrenfeld (1976, 1979
A Florida endemic which currently has a narrow range due to habitat destruction. Succession of pine rockland to tropical hammock due to disrupted fire regimes and invasion of exotic plant species is also a threat to this species. The Florida Natural Areas Inventory contains eighteen occurrence records in its database.
Historically, habitat destruction was a primary threat that reduced this species range by 98% (USFWS 1999). Continued urbanization, non-native plant invasion and fire suppression continue to threaten this species.
There are an estimated 10,000 individuals (DERM 1993) at 18 sites; 12 of which are publicly owned.
Pollination ecology studied by Ehrenfeld (1976, 1979).
Miami-Dade County's Department of Environmental Resource Management and Natural Areas Management manage the sites where this species occurs. Their management plans include prescribed fire, though these are often too infrequent, due to lack of public support and recent droughts. Hand-removal of hardwood species is often employed as a surrogate to fires.
Research into seed ecology, propagation and reintroduction methods is needed. Management should include a natural fire regime. Brush, litter, and invasive non-natives should be kept clear of existing plants (USFWS 1999, Fisher 2000).
Fairchild Tropical Garden does not have an ex situ collection of this species, and currently does not have funding to create one. If plants are collected in the future, sowing wild-collected seeds is recommended, because the large taproots of these plants greatly reduce the feasibility of transplanting.
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