There are only 5 confirmed, extant occurrences - 3 in southeastern Minnesota and 2 over 1300 km away in western New York. All the populations are narrowly restricted to specific habitat conditions created in places where ground water and cool air seep through rocks. Housing development is taking place in the immediate vicinity of some Minnesota sites, threatening to disrupt the subsurface water flow that creates the unusual unique habitat. Taxonomic distinctiveness of the subspecies generally accepted. This taxon is of conservation concern due to its very specific habitat requirements, disjunct occurrences, and small population sizes.
Increased runoff from disturbed land
Lakeside residential development and concurrent tree clearing
Ground water contamination
There are two sites in upstate New York as described above. Watkins Glen only has one individual present although it is in good condition. Four populations are found in Minnesota with each containing several thousand plants. (USFWS 1992) Only the populations at Watkins Lake and Whitewater Wildlife Management Area, Minnesota are located on public land.
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