Endemic to southeastern Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. It appears to be extirpated in the Koolau Mountains of Oahu and on Molokai and Maui. On Kauai and the Waianae Mountains of Oahu fewer than 100 plants are known to be extant. The species and its habitats are threatened by feral goats and pigs, and alien plants.
exotics goats rats spider mites
< 20 individuals in 1 population on Oahu individuals in 2 current populations, last updated 1987 < 10 individuals (Kauai) 20 individuals (Oahu)
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