A narrowly endemic, rare and diminishing species.
Insect larvae that kill adults in the spring
Extreme drought or wet seasons
(Webb et al 1992)
In 1988 there was only one extant population left in the area containing Illinois and Indiana. Currently there is an additional population in Indiana from a reintroduction project and seven counties in Illinois have populations due to similar efforts. The species is found in eight counties in Tennessee. There is no information on Alabama populations. (Webb et al. 1992)
Marlin Bowles and his colleagues at the Morton Arboretum have created a greenhouse population and are involved in reintroduction programs. Illinois DNR nursery manager, David Horvath and Carol and Jerry Baskin of the University of Kentucky have independently created propagation protocols from seed. (Native Plant Network 2002) The Illinois DNR has monitored the remaining natural population at Manito Prairie during the 1990's.
Continued reintroduction and protection of suitable habitat
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