CPC Plant Profile: Spreading Globeflower
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Plant Profile

Spreading Globeflower (Trollius laxus ssp. laxus)

The yellow buttercup flowers of this species can be up to 1.5 inches in diameter. Photo Credit: Brian Parsons
Description
  • Global Rank: T3 - Vulnerable
  • Legal Status: N/A
  • Family: Ranunculaceae
  • State: CT, MI, NJ, NY, OH, PA
  • Nature Serve ID: 142297
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 01/01/1985

To date, this species is found in approximately 40 populations, most of them with fewer than 100 individuals, in eastern North America. Conservation activities for this species are numerous in its range, and include monitoring, seed banking (three occurrences), ecology and population genetics work, and propagation. Because of this work, the taxon was recently elevated to the full species level and work has shown that this species is the only polyploid member of its genus (Jones 2001). Trollius laxus is a perennial that grows to 12-20 inches tall. It has pale-yellow or cream colored flowers, blooming from April to June (TNC 1987).

Participating Institutions
Updates
  • 10/17/2020
  • Demographic Research

Dr. Donald J. Leopold received a grant to study management of Trollius laxus ssp. laxus in central New York for two years beginning in 1991, but no publication was found. (Leopold 2001) Under the theory that removal of woody species shading the Trollius population would increase flowering, a section of one population was cleared in 1999. The cleared portion did not show the expected increase in number of plants or flowering plants by 2001, but further monitoring may be necessary (Faivre 2002)

  • 10/17/2020
  • Propagation Research

From 1982-1985, research was conducted to determine seed germination and growth requirements, working with Ohio genotypes. (Parsons 1984)

  • 10/17/2020
  • Reintroduction

The Cornell Botanic Garden's American Globeflower (Trollius laxus) Conservation Goals are as follows: (1) Preservation of genetic resources ex-situ. (2) Maintain viable American Globeflower populations within two Cornell Botanic Garden natural areas. These seeds are propagated in greenhouses yielding a 60% germination rate, grown for an additional two years under 50% shade and then outplanted in the fall of that given year. Previous research has revealed that the American Globeflower does not perform very well if it is shaded and doesn't perform well if it receives too much light. The preferred range is between 20% to 40% of available light. Same results were obtained by CORN while re-establishing populations that intermediate levels (LUX) yield very high population density. One of the challenges is many of these sites are becoming more shaded as tree growths occur so canopy thinning may be a consideration but may prove to be unnecessary as natural thinning is inevitable due to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid and Emerald Ash Borer devastating the Hemlock and Ash Tree population. In-situ conservations efforts are ongoing within two of Cornell's natural sites - a reintroduction program was initiated in 2012 to augment the population. A total of 344 propagated plants have been successfully introduced with a 90-95% survival rate. Valuable information obtained from the successful reintroduction of the globeflower will be applied to future projects. (Dunn. 2018)

  • 10/17/2020
  • Propagation Research

The Cornell Botanic Garden's American Globeflower (Trollius laxus) Conservation Goals are as follows: (1) Preservation of genetic resources ex-situ. (2) Maintain viable American Globeflower populations within two Cornell Botanic Garden natural areas. These seeds are propagated in greenhouses yielding a 60% germination rate, grown for an additional two years under 50% shade and then outplanted in the fall of that given year. Previous research has revealed that the American Globeflower does not perform very well if it is shaded and doesn't perform well if it receives too much light. The preferred range is between 20% to 40% of available light. Same results were obtained by CORN while re-establishing populations that intermediate levels (LUX) yield very high population density. One of the challenges is many of these sites are becoming more shaded as tree growths occur so canopy thinning may be a consideration but may prove to be unnecessary as natural thinning is inevitable due to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid and Emerald Ash Borer devastating the Hemlock and Ash Tree population. In-situ conservations efforts are ongoing within two of Cornell's natural sites - a reintroduction program was initiated in 2012 to augment the population. A total of 344 propagated plants have been successfully introduced with a 90-95% survival rate. Valuable information obtained from the successful reintroduction of the globeflower will be applied to future projects. (Dunn. 2018)

Elvia Ryan
  • 05/07/2019

The Cornell Botanic Garden's American Globeflower (Trollius laxus) Conservation Goals are as follows:  (1) Preservation of genetic resources ex-situ.  (2) Maintain viable American Globeflower populations within two Cornell Botanic Garden natural areas. These seeds are propagated in greenhouses yielding a 60% germination rate, grown for an additional two years under 50% shade and then outplanted in the fall of that given year.   Previous research has revealed that the American Globeflower does not perform very well if it is shaded and doesn't perform well if it receives too much light.  The preferred range is between 20% to 40% of available light.  Same results were obtained by CORN while re-establishing populations that intermediate levels (LUX) yield very high population density.  One of the challenges is many of these sites are becoming more shaded as tree growths occur so canopy thinning may be a consideration but may prove to be unnecessary as natural thinning is inevitable due to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid and Emerald Ash Borer devastating the Hemlock and Ash Tree population.   In-situ conservations efforts are ongoing within two of Cornell's natural sites - a reintroduction program was initiated in 2012 to augment the population.  A total of 344 propagated plants have been successfully introduced with a 90-95% survival rate.  Valuable information obtained from the successful reintroduction of the globeflower will be applied to future projects.  (Dunn. 2018)

Elvia Ryan
  • 05/07/2019

The American Globeflower is currently listed as G3.  There exists 40 populations total with nearly 50% of populations located in one watershed (Dunn. 2018)

Elvia Ryan
  • 07/31/2018

Excessive shading is suspected as the causal factor for this population decline. (Dunn. 2018)

Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

37 populations of T. laxus ssp. laxus are known, these range from 5 to 3000 individuals. The largest population in 1983 3000 plants (NY); this same population had 2000 plants in 1980.

Dawn M. Gerlica and Lindsey Parsons
  • 01/01/2010

Loss of suitable habitat because of wetlands being drained, filled, or flooded for residential, commercial, or agricultural use. Natural succession of wetlands to woody vegetation Changes in the watershed by humans, beavers, or other sources Logging

Dawn M. Gerlica and Lindsey Parsons
  • 01/01/2010

Jones (2001) states that there are approximately 40 known occurrences of this species, all in eastern North America. Most of these occurrences have less than 100 individuals, and almost all have less than 1000 individuals.

Dawn M. Gerlica and Lindsey Parsons
  • 01/01/2010

From 1982-1985, research was conducted to determine seed germination and growth requirements, working with Ohio genotypes. (Parsons 1984)

Dawn M. Gerlica and Lindsey Parsons
  • 01/01/2010

Dr. Donald J. Leopold received a grant to study management of Trollius laxus ssp. laxus in central New York for two years beginning in 1991, but no publication was found. (Leopold 2001) Under the theory that removal of woody species shading the Trollius population would increase flowering, a section of one population was cleared in 1999. The cleared portion did not show the expected increase in number of plants or flowering plants by 2001, but further monitoring may be necessary (Faivre 2002)

Dawn M. Gerlica and Lindsey Parsons
  • 01/01/2010

As stated by Jones (2001), research and management needs include: Searches of appropriate habitat for historic and potentially new occurrences. Strive to achieve and maintain full genetic representation in the seed bank from known and new occurrences if they are found. Protect at least one site (with the larges known population) in Connecticut. Study the biology of the species in situ, including competition interactions and pollination biology, to help guide management strategies. Determine hydrologic processes that influence the vegetation composition and structure of wetlands that support this species. Continue work to clarify the full taxonomy of this species and members of the Trollius genus in North America.

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Nomenclature
Taxon Trollius laxus ssp. laxus
Authority Salisb.
Family Ranunculaceae
CPC Number 4351
ITIS 524786
USDA TRLAL
Common Names American globe-flower | Spreading globe-flower
Associated Scientific Names Trollius laxus | Trollius laxus ssp. laxus | Trollius americanus
Distribution This plant is historically found in wetlands from Ohio, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut.
State Rank
State State Rank
Connecticut S1
Michigan SNR
New Jersey S1
New York S3
Ohio SNR
Pennsylvania S1
Habitat

This perennial grows in wetlands influenced by cold, highly alkaline groundwater seepage found in open fens, along swamp margins, and in partly sunny, wet openings in seepage swamps. It also lives in wet woods, wet meadows, and other calcareous wetlands. It doesn't adapt well to habitat alterations. This species is able to survive competition from other plants in deep shade, but needs sunlight to flower and produce seed. It prefers soils derived from glacial materials, such as clays, silt, sand, and gravelly soils. It occupies areas prone to flooding and ponding, as well as areas with low or slow soil permeability (TNC 1987).

Ecological Relationships

This species emerges and flowers in the early spring (mid-April to early May), before the canopy of trees in its swampy habitat are able to leaf out (Bliss 1985). Seeds ripen by mid-June (in Connecticut), with gravity, wind, rain and seasonal winds dispersing them (Parsons and Yates 1984).

Pollinators
Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Butterflies & Moths
Skippers Pyrgus centaureae Floral Visitor Link

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