Endemic to the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. It has not been seen on Hawaii since the 1800's. On Oahu, no wild plants are known to be extant (although plants propagated from an Oahu population still exist in cultivation). On Kauai, fewer than 20 individuals are known. The species is threatened by feral pigs and goats, and a number of alien plant species.
Threats to S. sandwicense include habitat degradation by feral pigs, and competition with non-native plant species. This species is also threatened by over collecting, fire, stochastic extinction, and reduce vigor due to the small number of existing indi
Number of Populations: 5 (USFWS 2001)
Number of Plants: 13-14 (USFWS 2001)
The seeds of S. sandwicense have been tested by the Center for Conservation Research and Training (CCRT), finding that they are orthodox and can tolerate freezing. The laboratory germination time was nine weeks (Yoshinaga 2002).
The Kokee Resource Conservation Program (KRCP) is a volunteer based alien species control program. KRCP has improved the status of S. sandwicense population by weeding out Rubus argutus (Fay et. al., 2001).
The last wild individual of S. sandwicensis died on Oahu in the early 1990s. The staff at the NTBG had made several conservation collections of seed before its death, which are now cultivated.
The National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) currently has ex situ holdings of 1,433 seeds in its seed bank, which represents all five populations (including the Oahu population that is now extinct) (Wood et. al., 2002). In addition, there are 20 plants that represent three out of the five populations growing in the grounds of the botanical garden. From those 20 plants in the grounds of NTBG, eight plants are from unknown localities
1. Propagation efforts and the maintenance of adequate stock ex situ should be undertaken.
2. Pollination biology and studies are needed.
3. Map genetic diversity in the surviving wild populations of S. sandwicense.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, M. Maunder, and USFWS (1995).
1. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation.
2. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for S. sandwicense.
3. Surveys ex situ holdings so that molecular fingerprinting can be done.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.
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