CPC Plant Profile: Diamond Head Schiedea
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Plant Profile

Diamond Head Schiedea (Schiedea adamantis)

Photo Credit: Maggie J. Sporck-Koehler © 2014
Description
  • Global Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
  • Legal Status: Federally Endangered
  • Family: Caryophyllaceae
  • State: HI
  • Nature Serve ID: 150939
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 02/09/1992

This species was first collected on the slopes of Diamond Head Crater on O`ahu, Hawai`i in 1955 and described as a valid new species in 1970. It is a small shrub known only from one population, and has survived in the Diamond Head Crater area despite the growing urbanization of the area. Schiedea adamantis exists under harsh conditions, buffeted by strong winds, high light intensity, low precipitation, and high temperatures. Since 1988, unusually prolonged drought conditions at Diamond Head have caused the decimation of the Schiedea population. Originally consisting of about 200 individuals, only 2 plants are currently known to be alive though, a few more may recover with increased precipitation.

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Updates
  • 09/27/2020
  • Genetic Research

Population Genetics-Dr. Stephen Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine

  • 09/27/2020
  • Orthodox Seed Banking

Seed Banking-Dr. Steven Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine

  • 09/27/2020
  • Reproductive Research

Reproductive Biology-Dr. Stephen Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine

  • 09/27/2020
  • Propagation Research

The propagation of plants in the genus Schiedea has been studied both at the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum and Waimea Arboretum & Botanical Garden.

  • 09/27/2020
  • Propagation Research

The propagation of plants in the genus Schiedea has been studied both at the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum and Waimea Arboretum & Botanical Garden.

  • 09/27/2020
  • Reintroduction

More than 200 seedlings have been planted at a downslope site on Diamond Head, where they are being maintained and monitored by the U.S. National Army Reserves (Trae Menard Pers. Comm. 2001).

Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

Endemic to Diamond Head, Oahu. This species is known from a single population of fewer than 300 plants. Threats to this species include competition with alien plants, fire, climatic fluctation, and human disturbance.

Nellie Sugii
  • 01/01/2010

Exotic plants Erosion Small population size Drought Fire Habitat degradation, including soil compaction from hikers and sightseers on nearby trails (USFWS 1994, 2001)

Nellie Sugii
  • 01/01/2010

Possibly only 2 remaining wild individuals in 1 population at Diamond Head, O`ahu, Hawai`i. A few more individuals may recover with additional precipitation, but it is doubtful (Trae Menard Pers. Comm. 2001) and (Wagner et. al 1999).

Nellie Sugii
  • 01/01/2010

Floral Biology-Dr. Stephen Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine Reproductive Biology-Dr. Stephen Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine Propagation-Harold L. Lyon Arboretum The propagation of plants in the genus Schiedea has been studied both at the Harold L. Lyon Arboretum and Waimea Arboretum & Botanical Garden. (Llop & Woolliams 1991) Seed Banking-Dr. Steven Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine Population Genetics-Dr. Stephen Weller, Univ. of California-Irvine Breeding system evolution in the Schiedea genus--Dr. Theresa Culley, assistant professor at University of Cincinnati, has done work in this area with Dr. Stephen Weller, Ann Sakai and Diane Campbell (Culley 2002) (USFWS 1994)

Nellie Sugii
  • 01/01/2010

More than 200 seedlings have been planted at a downslope site on Diamond Head, where they are being maintained and monitored by the U.S. National Army Reserves (Trae Menard Pers. Comm. 2001).

Nellie Sugii
  • 01/01/2010

Secure remaining wild individuals from threats, especially drought. Establish more outplanting sites. Controlled breeding and propagation program. (USFWS 1994)

Nellie Sugii
  • 01/01/2010

Evaluate seed accessions for genetic representation and insure their safety. Aquire and establish vegetative propagules from remaining wild individuals. Continuation of strategic ex situ breeding. (USFWS 1994)

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Nomenclature
Taxon Schiedea adamantis
Authority H. St. John
Family Caryophyllaceae
CPC Number 3839
ITIS 20201
USDA SCAD
Common Names Diamond Head Schiedea
Associated Scientific Names Schiedea adamantis
Distribution Known only on the northwest rim of Diamond Head Crater, O`ahu, Hawai`i, the population occurs in a area approximately 11 meters by 22 meters.
State Rank
State State Rank
Hawaii S1
Habitat

Preferred habitats of this shrub feature dry, steep slopes.

Ecological Relationships

No known pollinators have been observed visiting the small flowers. The most common visitor to Schiedea adamantis was Simosyrphus grandicornis, an introduced syrphid fly. Occasional visits by Allograpta exotica, another introduced syrphid species, were also noted. Flies were equally likely to land on females and hermaphrodites and the length of the foraging bouts were similar for the two sexes.

Pollinators
Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Reintroduction
Lead Institution State Reintroduction Type Year of First Outplanting

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