Endemic to Niihau, Kauai, and the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. This species may number 5,000 or more plants. Much of this species' habitat is being degraded by feral goats and pigs, and is being invaded by a number of alien plant species. Additional threats include rats and fire.
trampling by feral pigs (Oahu) habitat degradation and predation by feral goats (Oahu and Kauai) fire (Oahu) competition from alien plant species (Oahu and Kauai) trampling by humans on or along trails (Oahu)
the 33 known populations contain at least 2,000 individuals. While some populations are now well documented, at least 12 and 6 populations number fewer than 12 individuals on Oahu and Kauai, respectively
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