CPC Plant Profile: Lakeside Daisy
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Plant Profile

Lakeside Daisy (Tetraneuris herbacea)

A field of flowering lakeside daisies. Photo Credit:
Description
  • Global Rank: G3 - Vulnerable
  • Legal Status: Federally Threatened
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • State: CAN, IL, MI, OH, ON
  • Nature Serve ID: 130195
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 01/01/1985

Tetraneuris herbacea is a stunning plant, both in its flower and its ability to survive. From late April to mid-May a carpet of sunny yellow flowers can be seen covering limestone pavement of the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve, near the town of Lakeside, Ohio. The flowers all turn to follow the path of the sun across the sky. The 5-25 cm tall plants produce one or more, 5-30 cm tall, leafless stalks with a single flower. The flower is a composite with 10-30 double notched golden petals. The center disk is also yellow and 1-2 cm across. The blooms last for about a week and seeds disperse like dandelions, a month later. T. herbacea also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes from its thick taproot. The lance-like leaves are all basal as well as thick and rubbery, which may be where one of the other common names, rubberweed, originated. The plant was last known to occur naturally in Illinois in 1981 when the site owned by Commonwealth Edison Power Company was used for storage of several tons of coal. Three plants were removed before destruction of this site and have been the basis for all plant research from this population since. Even before the site was destroyed the population was effectively extinct. Studies from 1970-79 found no viable seed production because the 20-30 remaining plants were genetically too close to reproduce.

Participating Institutions
Updates
  • 09/30/2020
  • Reproductive Research

Marcella DeMauro studied the reproductive biology of the species. Using plants from the last population in Illinois and the Marblehead population in Ohio, she determined that pollination is self-incompatible, including closely related plants. (DeMauro 1992)

  • 09/30/2020
  • Reintroduction

40,000 seeds were collected from Marblehead and broadcast into the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve in Ohio and two experimental plots at the other ODNR quarry. (Recovery plan 1990)

  • 09/30/2020
  • Seed Collection

40,000 seeds were collected from Marblehead and broadcast into the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve in Ohio and two experimental plots at the other ODNR quarry. (Recovery plan 1990)

  • 09/30/2020
  • Reintroduction

In Ohio, in 1989, 200 plants were collected from different areas within Marblehead Quarry. These plants were used to start a population within one of two abandoned quarries owned by ODNR on Kelleys Island, Ohio.

  • 09/30/2020
  • Reintroduction

(USFWS 1990) DeMauro’s research crossed some plants from Illinois and Ohio which were used along with Ohio and Canada progeny to repopulate quality habitats in Illinois from the historic range of the species. Initial planting occurred in 1988 at three nature preserves: Lockport Prairie, and Romeoville Prairie in Will county and Manito Prairie in Tazewell county. (Recovery plan 1990)

Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

Known only from limestone and dolomite outcrops in restricted areas of Ontario, Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio. About 20 populations are extant in Ontario, but the species is in danger of being extirpated in the United States. The Illinois populations have already been extirpated (although native-derived plants have been reintroduced and are surviving in habitats they formerly occupied). The site of the only natural population in Ohio is actively being quarried. The species has been introduced at a second Ohio site, using plants from the natural population. In addition to quarrying, woody succession poses a threat at many sites.

It is not expected that this species is overlooked given its conspicuous nature.

Dawn M. Gerlica
  • 01/01/2010

Threats, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the time of listing (USFWS 1990), include: Limestone quarrying Fire suppression Habitat destruction by recreational activities, foot traffic, construction, etc. Herbivory Plant collecting,

Dawn M. Gerlica
  • 01/01/2010

20 extant populations are known in Ontario on the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island (NatureServe 2001) including the following areas: Belanger Bay Cabot Head Dyers Bay Road/Brinkmans Corners East side of Quarry Bay Misery Bay Taskerville West of Lynn Point Christina Bay/ Burnt Island Harbor George Lake In 1994, fieldwork in Canada located at least 5 populations with at least 10,000 plants and several smaller populations within the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island. Marblehead Quarry/Lakeside Plains, Ohio - Mackinac County, Michigan - Hiawatha National Forest - first collected in 1996 unknown population size (Voss 1996)

Dawn M. Gerlica
  • 01/01/2010

Marcella DeMauro studied the reproductive biology of the species. Using plants from the last population in Illinois and the Marblehead population in Ohio, she determined that pollination is self-incompatible, including closely related plants. (DeMauro 1992)

Dawn M. Gerlica
  • 01/01/2010

ODNR purchased land and established the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve. This 19 acre preserve still protects a large population while being surrounded by active quarrying and construction. (USFWS 1990) DeMauro’s research crossed some plants from Illinois and Ohio which were used along with Ohio and Canada progeny to repopulate quality habitats in Illinois from the historic range of the species. Initial planting occurred in 1988 at three nature preserves: Lockport Prairie, and Romeoville Prairie in Will county and Manito Prairie in Tazewell county. (Recovery plan 1990) In Ohio, in 1989, 200 plants were collected from different areas within Marblehead Quarry. These plants were used to start a population within one of two abandoned quarries owned by ODNR on Kelleys Island, Ohio. 40,000 seeds were collected from Marblehead and broadcast into the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve in Ohio and two experimental plots at the other ODNR quarry. (Recovery plan 1990)

Dawn M. Gerlica
  • 01/01/2010

Research: No suggestions found Management: Exotic species control. Although most native species cannot survive long in the harsh climate where this species grows, exotic species are getting a foothold and competing. (USFWS 1990) Herbivore control. Rabbits, deer and other predatory herbivores need to be managed. (USFWS 1990) Seed ecology. Seed bank roles as well as seed viability, dispersal, and seed herbivory would be useful for understanding population maintenance. (USFWS 1990)

Dawn M. Gerlica
  • 01/01/2010

No suggestions found

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Photos
Nomenclature
Taxon Tetraneuris herbacea
Authority Greene
Family Asteraceae
CPC Number 2291
ITIS 202490
USDA TEHE4
Common Names Eastern fournerved daisy | four-nerved starflower | Lakeside daisy | Manitoulin gold | stemless hymenoxys | stemless rubberweed
Associated Scientific Names Tetraneuris herbacea | Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra | Actinea herbacea | Hymenoxys herbacea
Distribution T. herbacea is historically found in Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario. (USFWS 1990)
State Rank
State State Rank
Canada NT2
Illinois S1
Michigan S1
Ohio S1
Ontario S3
Habitat

This plant is known to exist primarily in the alvars, limestone or dolomitic bedrock based grasslands with thin soils, of the Great Lakes region. Alvar communities are also rare and often threatened by quarrying and development which adds to the difficulties for this plant. It is also known from limestone prairies and sunny openings in cedar woodlands. These communities are naturally alkaline and often range from wet in the spring and fall to extremely dry in the summer. Areas where Tetraneuris herbacea appears are often sparsely inhabited by other native plants, which allow them exposure to full sun. (USFWS 1990)

Ecological Relationships

Noted potential pollinators: bumble bees (Bombus spp.), small carpenter bees (Ceratina spp. ), and halictid bees (Halictidae), but pollination may also be achieved by wind. (USFWS 1990)

Pollinators
Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Beetles
Coleoptera Floral Visitor Link
Coleoptera Floral Visitor Link
Flies
Diptera Floral Visitor Link
Diptera Floral Visitor Link
Other
Hemiptera Floral Visitor Link
Hemiptera Floral Visitor Link
Homoptera Floral Visitor Link
Homoptera Floral Visitor Link
Hymenoptera Floral Visitor Link
Hymenoptera Floral Visitor Link
Lepidoptera Floral Visitor Link
Lepidoptera Floral Visitor Link
Net-winged insects Neuroptera Floral Visitor Link
Net-winged insects Neuroptera Floral Visitor Link
Grasshoppers/crickets Orthoptera Floral Visitor Link
Grasshoppers/crickets Orthoptera Floral Visitor Link

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