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Plant Profile

Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya)

Closeup of raceme. Notice the upright habit and lance shape of the leaves. Photo Credit: S. Perlman
  • Global Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled
  • Legal Status: Federally Endangered
  • Family: Lamiaceae
  • State: HI
  • Nature Serve ID: 127951
  • Lifeform: Forb/herb
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 07/09/1992

There are five recorded species of Haplostachys endemic to Hawaii, but only one remains today, and that is H. haplostachya (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] 2001). This taxon, a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is an erect perennial herb that has square stems with dense tomentose leaves. Its leaves are somewhat fleshy and narrowly cordate (heart shaped). The flowers are white, formed in racemes, and are densely tomentose (Wagner et al. 1999).

Where is Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya) located in the wild?


H. haplostachya grows at elevations of 990 to 2,135 meters elevation in sandier soils (Wagner et al. 1999).


H. haplostachya was formerly known to grow on the barren sandy ridges of Kauai; Kula, Maui, and on Hawaii. Presently H. haplostachya is known to grow in Kipukakalawamauna (1, 585 m) on Hawaii (Wagner

States & Provinces:

Honohono can be found in Hawaii

Which CPC Partners conserve Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya)?

CPC's Plant Sponsorship Program provides long term stewardship of rare plants in our National Collection. We are so grateful for all our donors who have made the Plant Sponsorship Program so successful. We are in the process of acknowledging all our wonderful plant sponsorship donors on our website. This is a work in progress and will be updated regularly.

Conservation Actions

Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

This species has been recorded from the islands of Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. It is known to be extant only on the Pohakuloa Training Area on Hawaii Island, in an area about 8 km in diameter. Fewer than 20,000 plants remain in this area. Threats to this species include alien plants and animals, human disturbance, and fire.

  • 01/01/2010

Threats to H. haplostachya include invasive introduced species, human disturbance, and fire (NatureServe 2001).

  • 01/01/2010

Number of Populations: 2 (USFWS 2001) Number of Plants: >1000 (USFWS 2001)

  • 01/01/2010

There is an ongoing research at the Center for Ecological Management of Military Lands (CEMML). They are conducting an experiment to test the effectiveness of accelerated aging techniques to overcome seed dormancy and stimulate germination (CEMML 1997).

  • 01/01/2010

At Pu`u Kapele and Pu`u Ke`eke`e (Hawaii), fencing was proposed to protect significant populations of H. haplostachya. The first alternative alignment would entail construction of 1.03 miles of fence, while the second alternative would use 4.06 miles of fence. ""Fencing the larger area is the preferred alternative and the proposed action but is subject to the availability of funds,"" the Environmental Agency (EA) states (Tummons 1997). The National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) made numerous attempts to propagate the seeds of H. haplostachya in its nursery. After unsuccessful results, the seeds were scattered in an outdoor planter, near cultivated Nephrolepis cordifolia (fern) and Munroidendron racemosum. The seeds sprouted and the resulting plants are now the source of clonal and seed propagules (M.H. Chapin, pers. comm. 2002). NTBG currently has ex situ holdings of 900 seeds in its seed bank, which represents the two populations. In addition, there are six plants growing in the nursery, and six plants representing one population growing in the botanical garden.

  • 01/01/2010

1. Map genetic diversity in the surviving populations of H. haplostachya. 2. Exclosures are needed around populations of H. haplostachya. Testing the effects of fencing before it is utilized is needed. 3. Conduct pollination biology and seed dispersal studies. Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, M. Maunder, and P. Tummons.

  • 01/01/2010

1. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation. 2. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for H. haplostachya. 3. Survey ex situ holdings and conduct molecular fingerprinting. Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.


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Taxon Haplostachys haplostachya
Authority (A. Gray) St. John
Family Lamiaceae
CPC Number 2137
ITIS 32825
Duration Perennial
Common Names honohono
Associated Scientific Names Haplostachys haplostachya var. angustifolia | Haplostachys haplostachya | Haplostachys haplostachya var. leptostachya
Distribution H. haplostachya was formerly known to grow on the barren sandy ridges of Kauai; Kula, Maui, and on Hawaii. Presently H. haplostachya is known to grow in Kipukakalawamauna (1, 585 m) on Hawaii (Wagner
State Rank
State State Rank
Hawaii S1
Ecological Relationships

Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Butterflies & Moths
Moths Floral Visitor Link
Insects Floral Visitor Link
Lead Institution State Reintroduction Type Year of First Outplanting
Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife Hawaii Reintroduction 2014
Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife Hawaii Reintroduction 2014

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