CPC Plant Profile: `Akoko
Search / Plant Profile / Euphorbia skottsbergii var. skottsbergii
Plant Profile

`Akoko (Euphorbia skottsbergii var. skottsbergii)

This shot shows the tree on the grounds of Waimea Arboretum in 1989. This tree is now dead. Photo Credit: Waimea
Description
  • Global Rank: T2 - Imperiled
  • Legal Status: Federally Endangered
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • State: HI
  • Nature Serve ID: 158140
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 02/10/1987

Perennial, erect shrub with spindly, segmented, brittle branches and small, opposing ovate to orbicular leaves. Specimens range to 2 meters in height, but most are 0.5 to 1 meter tall. Plants are summer deciduous in their natural habitat, but retain leaves with irrigation. Copious milky white sap. Seeds are ejected by an explosive dispersal mechanism. This taxon is currently lumped with Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. skottsbergii, pending further genetic work. (Wagner et al. 1999)

Participating Institutions
CPC's Plant Sponsorship Program provides long term stewardship of rare plants in our National Collection. We are so grateful for all our donors who have made the Plant Sponsorship Program so successful. We are in the process of acknowledging all our wonderful plant sponsorship donors on our website. This is a work in progress and will be updated regularly.
Updates
  • 10/17/2020
  • Demographic Research

A 1999 survey of two 20-acre parcels of its remaining range found 11 adults, 11 juveniles and 6 seedlings. From this a population estimate of 330 individuals was extrapolated. ""Data tables and maps showing locations are provided in the Draft EE/CA Addendum No. 2 Former Trap and Skeet Ranges, Former Naval Air Station Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii (Earth Tech 1999) A 2000 survey by Art Whistler and USFWS biologists covered the remaining 100 acres over two days in February of that year. A total of 131 dead and living 'akoko individuals were counted. 94 seedlings and juveniles were recorded along with 37 dead plants. These were hand-mapped using GPS-PLGR units. The most recent survey was completed from May 30th to June 15th of 2001. Observers walked along transect lines 10 meters apart. Flagging located dead and live 'akoko individuals and data for each living plant was recorded including height, basal diameter, age class, reproductive status and vigor. 129 individuals were found in about 32 locations. 11 were adults over 24"" and 118 were juveniles. Twenty of the 129 were flowering, and immature fruit were spotted on a few, but no propagules were collected. On a partial walk-through of the area on November 21st, 2001, we observed many live-tagged plants which were dead, but we were able to tag about a dozen new plants. The USFWS worker reported that in mid-December, thanks to substantial winter rains, about 50 new plants were tagged, bringing the population estimate up to about 200.

Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

Endemic to the Ewa Plains at the southwestern tip of Oahu, and the northwestern coast of Molokai. There are 7 current occurrences. All of the Oahu occurrences are threatened by habitat destruction and modification stemming from the urbanization of the Ewa Plains. The Molokai occurrences are threatened by deer, cattle, and off-road vehicles. All the occurrences are threatened by alien plant competition and fire.

David Orr
  • 01/01/2010

Construction of a proposed deep-draft harbor. Residential & industrial development. Drier weather. Proposed ""clean-up"", detoxification of area, meaning removal of topsoil because of lead contamination before the Navy can turn it over

David Orr
  • 01/01/2010

There are currently about 200 plants spread over 150 acres, the site of the Barber's Point Naval facility's Northern Trap and Skeet range. The USFWS is monitoring the plants, which are apparently declining in numbers.

David Orr
  • 01/01/2010

A 1999 survey of two 20-acre parcels of its remaining range found 11 adults, 11 juveniles and 6 seedlings. From this a population estimate of 330 individuals was extrapolated. ""Data tables and maps showing locations are provided in the Draft EE/CA Addendum No. 2 Former Trap and Skeet Ranges, Former Naval Air Station Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii (Earth Tech 1999) A 2000 survey by Art Whistler and USFWS biologists covered the remaining 100 acres over two days in February of that year. A total of 131 dead and living 'akoko individuals were counted. 94 seedlings and juveniles were recorded along with 37 dead plants. These were hand-mapped using GPS-PLGR units. The most recent survey was completed from May 30th to June 15th of 2001. Observers walked along transect lines 10 meters apart. Flagging located dead and live 'akoko individuals and data for each living plant was recorded including height, basal diameter, age class, reproductive status and vigor. 129 individuals were found in about 32 locations. 11 were adults over 24"" and 118 were juveniles. Twenty of the 129 were flowering, and immature fruit were spotted on a few, but no propagules were collected. On a partial walk-through of the area on November 21st, 2001, we observed many live-tagged plants which were dead, but we were able to tag about a dozen new plants. The USFWS worker reported that in mid-December, thanks to substantial winter rains, about 50 new plants were tagged, bringing the population estimate up to about 200.

David Orr
  • 01/01/2010

David Orr at Waimea Arboretum has asked the University's Botany Department to compare the DNA of this variety to the var. skottsbergii (into which var. kalaeloana has been lumped). If it does prove to be a distinct variety, it would receive federal protection.

David Orr
  • 01/01/2010

Full sun, dry, coral.

MORE

Be the first to post an update!

Photos
Nomenclature
Taxon Euphorbia skottsbergii var. skottsbergii
Authority Sherff
Family Euphorbiaceae
CPC Number 1914
ITIS 845656
USDA CHSKS
Common Names Ewa Plains akoko
Associated Scientific Names Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. kalaeloana | Chamaesyce skottsbergii var. audens | Euphorbia skottsbergii var. kalaeloana
Distribution Found only on the Island of Oahu.
State Rank
State State Rank
Hawaii S2
Habitat

'Ewa Plains of Oahu, Hawaii

Ecological Relationships

Pollinators
Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Reintroduction
Lead Institution State Reintroduction Type Year of First Outplanting

Donate to CPC to Save this Species

CPC secures rare plants for future generations by coordinating on-the-ground conservation and training the next generation of plant conservation professionals. Donate today to help save rare plants from extinction.

Donate Today