CPC Plant Profile: Parish's Daisy
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Plant Profile

Parish's Daisy (Erigeron parishii)

Close up of Erigeron parishii Photo Credit: Naomi Fraga
Description
  • Global Rank: G2 - Imperiled
  • Legal Status: Federally Threatened
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • State: CA
  • Nature Serve ID: 128892
  • Date Inducted in National Collection:

Erigeron parishii (Parishs daisy) is a low growing perennial herb in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). This species commonly grows in pinyon-juniper, and Joshua tree woodland habitats, most commonly on carbonate, but occasionally on granite substrates in San Bernardino County, California. Most populations occur on the northern slope of the San Bernardino Mountains where outcrops of carbonate substrate run on an east-west axis (USFWS 1994). Erigeron parishii was listed as threatened by the federal government in 1994; limestone mining is the primary threat to this species (CNDDB 2007). Individual plants grow from a thick taproot, have silvery hairy linear leaves, and flower between May and August (Hickman 1993, Munz 1974).

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Updates
Center for Plant Conservation
  • 12/02/2021
  • Reintroduction

Erigeron parishii and Erigeron ovalifolium var. veneum are federally listed local endemic plants occurring almost exclusively on carbonate soils in the northeastern San Bernardino Mountains. In 1991 and 1992, both species were planted onto a barren cut slope above a limestone quarry haul road. The plants were irrigated through the first summer and fall after planting. No effort was made to restore other components of natural habitat (e.g., soil conditions or plant associates). Each plant was tagged. Growth and survival were monitored for 2-3 years after planting, and again 6-7 years after planting. Of the initial plantings, 77% of E. ovalifolium var. vineum and 66% of E. parishii survived to the 1998 monitoring period. We estimated average half-lives of established E. ovalifolium var. vineum and E. parishii as 20 years and 28 years, respectively. Both species have grown, flowered, and reproduced so that hundreds of progeny of both species now occur at the site. Most progeny of the two taxa were within a few meters of parent plants, and none were found beyond about 30 m from the study site. Progeny of both taxa became established on granitic material adjacent to the study site. E. parishii seems to have greater seedling production but lower establishment rates than E. ovalifolium var. vineum.

Cheryl Birker
  • 11/19/2021
  • Seed Collection

The California Botanic Garden made a conservation seed collection of a population of Erigeron parishii (Parish’s daisy) located in Cushenbury Canyon in the San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino County, California on June 3, 2021. This is a recollection of the 1991 seed collection made by Mike Hammitt (CalBG Accession #17366), and a seed sample was sent to the National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation for use in the CPC/IMLS RNA Integrity Study.

Center for Plant Conservation
  • 08/18/2021
  • Orthodox Seed Banking

In 2021, CPC contracted the California Botanic Garden to recollect seed from a population currently held in long term orthodox seed storage as part of an IMLS-funded seed longevity experiment. The National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation will evaluate how germination tested viability and RNA Integrity of seed lots decline over time in storage.

  • 09/09/2020
  • Genetic Research

An investigation of allozyme variation in Erigeron parishii in 2001 demonstrated that genetic variability is high at the species level and that there is little genetic differentiation between populations. High levels of allozyme diversity combined with low levels of population differentiation support maintaining a network of large interconnected populations.

  • 09/01/2020
  • Orthodox Seed Banking

Based on an September 2020 extract of the California Plant Rescue Database, California Botanic Garden holds 10 accessions of Erigeron parishii in orthodox seed collection. There are as many as 160754 seeds of this species in their collection - although some may have been used for curation testing or sent to back up.

  • 08/05/2020
  • Seed Collection

Based on an August 2020 extract of the California Plant Rescue Database, California Botanic Garden has collected 2 seed accessions of Erigeron parishii from 2 plant occurrences listed in the California Natural Diversity Database. These collections together emcompass 91 maternal plants

Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

Currently known from about 30 occurrences, all within the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. Mostly restricted to carbonate substrates. Such substrates are rare in this region and virtually all are currently under active, or maintained but currently inactive, mining claims. ORVs are another major threat in this area, which is a favorite for recreating southern Californians. It is not known if some of the many sites on federal (USFS) lands are protected.

Naomi Fraga
  • 01/01/2010

Erigeron parishii was listed as threatened by the USFWS in 1994. Most of the carbonate deposits in the San Bernardino Mountains are within active mining claims or mining claims being maintained for their deposits. Open terraced mining, overburden dumpin

Naomi Fraga
  • 01/01/2010

This species is known from 32 occurrences totaling more than 16,000 individuals at the time of its listing (USFWS 1994).

Naomi Fraga
  • 01/01/2010

An investigation of allozyme variation in Erigeron parishii in 2001 demonstrated that genetic variability is high at the species level and that there is little genetic differentiation between populations. High levels of allozyme diversity combined with low levels of population differentiation support maintaining a network of large interconnected populations.

Naomi Fraga
  • 01/01/2010

Populations exist on San Bernardino National Forest, Joshua Tree National Park, and private property (CNDDB 2007). The primary conservation strategy for E. parishii is to implement the Carbonate Habitat Management Strategy and to improve knowledge of its distribution. Critical habitat for E. parishii was designated by the USFWS in 2002 (USDA FS 2007, USFWS 2002).

Naomi Fraga
  • 01/01/2010

Potential habitat for Erigeron parishii needs to be surveyed in Joshua Tree National Park and the Yucca Valley/Mojave Desert region as additional populations may occur in this region. Ecological requirements need to be characterized at different sites by collecting soil samples for soil analysis, recording slope and aspect, documenting associated species, and any potential pollinators observed.

Naomi Fraga
  • 01/01/2010

Common garden study to investigate differences between populations of this species that grow on carbonate substrates and those that grow on granite derived substrates.

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Photos
Nomenclature
Taxon Erigeron parishii
Authority A. Gray
Family Asteraceae
CPC Number 1661
ITIS 35919
USDA ERPA3
Common Names Parish's Daisy | Parish's fleabane
Associated Scientific Names Erigeron parishii
Distribution Erigeron parishii is endemic to southern California and is currently only known from San Bernardino County. This species has a restricted natural distribution, with a range only 64 km long (Fraga 200
State Rank
State State Rank
California S2
Habitat

Erigeron parishii primarily occurs on carbonate substrates, but also occurs on soils derived from granite rock. Plants can be commonly found in loose alluvium near washes, canyon bottoms, or adjacent benches, but is also found on steep rocky slopes (USFWS 1994). This species grows in pinyon-juniper, and Joshua tree woodland habitats at elevations from 3700-6600 ft (1128-2012 m) (CNPS 2007).

Ecological Relationships

Among the gaps of ecological understanding for E. parishii and the other carbonate endemics is the lack of information about pollination ecology, seed dispersal mechanisms, and seed bank dynamics.

Pollinators
Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Reintroduction
Lead Institution State Reintroduction Type Year of First Outplanting
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden California Reintroduction 1991

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