Approximately 400 occurrences are scattered through a range centered around the Great Lakes, from southern Ontario through Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, and northern Indiana; additional populations are likely to be found through ongoing inventory. Although around 100 known occurrences are thought to have excellent or good viability, many nevertheless contain small numbers of reproductive plants; the total reproductive population may not be more than 3500-4000 individuals. Thought to have declined significantly from likely historic distribution and to still be declining currently. The primary threat is habitat loss/degradation, due to conversion for agriculture and development and to fire suppression which contributes to canopy closure and litter build-up, reducing habitat suitability. Active management (e.g. prescribed fire) may be necessary to ensure long-term persistence.
The DNR's domographic plot contained 2 flowering plants, 25 sterile plants and many uncounted seedlings the largest concentration is found in the central northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan
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