Endemic to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. This taxon is currently known from 5 sites with fewer than 300 plants. Most of the plants are in areas that have been degraded by feral goats in recent decades. Feral pigs also represent a threat to some populations. Competition with alien plants is a problem at all sites.
Threats to V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana include habitat degradation by feral pigs and goats. Invasions of alien species such as Schinus terebinthifolius (Christmas berry), Erigeron karvinskianus (daisy fleabane), and Milinis minutiflora (molasses
Number of Populations: 6 (USFWS 2001)
Number of Plants: 375 (USFWS 2001)
V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana is being propagated by the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) (USFWS 1998).
The seeds of V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana have been tested by the Center for Conservation Research and Training (CCRT), and were found to be orthodox and able to tolerate freezing and drying. The laboratory germination time was 4 weeks (Yoshinaga 2002).
NTBG currently has an ex situ holding of seven seeds in its seed bank, which represents one out of the six remaining populations.
1. Construct enclosures or strategic barrier fences around known populations of V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana to reduce the impacts of feral ungulates. Removal of those feral ungulates would also help in restoration of the native ecosystem.
2. Control competing alien plant species within the enclosures especially around populations were there are a few individuals (Kamaileunu Ridge, Palikea Ridge, Puu Hapapa, Halona, and Puu Kumakalii).
3. Provide protection from fire by coordinating a fire protection plan for endangered plant species on Honolulu City and County and federal lands.
4. Determine the genetic distinctiveness of V. chamissoniana subsp. tracheliifolia and V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana due to taxonomic status concerns.
5. Conduct pollination biology studies.
6. Map genetic diversity in the surviving populations of V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, M. Maunder, and USFWS (1998).
1. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation.
2. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for V. chamissoniana subsp. chamissoniana.
3. Surveys ex situ holdings so that molecular fingerprinting can be done.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.
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