CPC Plant Profile: Spring-flowering Goldenrod
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Plant Profile

Spring-flowering Goldenrod (Solidago verna)

This shot shows the plant in its natural habitat. Photo Credit: Rob Gardner
  • Global Rank: G3 - Vulnerable
  • Legal Status: N/A
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • State: NC, SC
  • Nature Serve ID: 128237
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 05/28/1986

Solidago verna is the only spring-flowering goldenrod that occurs in the Sandhills and Coastal Plain of the Carolinas. It can be found in a wide array of habitats, including pine savannas, pocosins, and pine barrens. Solidago verna stems can reach 5 tall and it flowers from late April to June displaying many relatively large, showy yellow heads (TNC 1993). This narrow-endemic is state-listed endangered in North Carolina and South Carolina. Despite the similarity between its current and historical distribution, it is likely that a number of historical occurrences have been extirpated through human-related disturbances and fire suppression (TNC 1993). Its primary threat is loss of habitat through fire suppression and land-use conversion.

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Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

Although restricted to a narrow range in northeastern South Carolina and southeastern North Carolina, Solidago verna occurs in a wide variety of habitats. However, this species is moderately threatened by alteration and destruction of habitat for development, plantation pineland and agriculture.

  • 01/01/2010

Habitat loss due to fire suppression and land development. (TNC 1993)

  • 01/01/2010

71 extant populations are now known from 15 counties. 37 of the populations are on federal lands. (TNC 1993)

  • 01/01/2010

Reproductive strategies were investigated by graduate student Martha Brewster at North Carolina State University. (Brewster 1995)

  • 01/01/2010

In North Carolina, 37 of the populations are on federal land (NFS or DoD). Most of these populations, which are found in the Croatan National Forest and Fort Bragg, are benefiting from expanded use of prescribed burning. Burns at Fort Bragg occur on a 3 year, growing season rotation.

  • 01/01/2010

Fire management on populations not receiving such management. Monitoring and demographic studies and census counts are needed to determine management efficacy. Research on the relationship between this species and fire disturbance is also needed. This species may better respond to a less frequent burning regime (TNC 1993)

  • 01/01/2010

Seed collection from populations not represented in collection (only 1 population represented in NCBG collection).


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Taxon Solidago verna
Authority M.A. Curtis ex Torr. & A. Gray
Family Asteraceae
CPC Number 4050
ITIS 36319
Common Names spring goldenrod | spring golden-rod | springflowering goldenrod
Associated Scientific Names Solidago verna | Aster vernus
Distribution Sandhills and Coastal Plains of North Carolina and South Carolina (TNC 1993)
State Rank
State State Rank
North Carolina S3
South Carolina S2

Streamhead Pocosin ecotones, terraces along the Little River, wet pine flatwoods (TNC 1993)

Ecological Relationships

Solidago verna is found in groups containing several plants to several hundred plants in relatively well-drained sites with mineral soil. Adapted to fire disturbance, this is the only goldenrod that flowers in the spring in the Sandhills and Coastal Plain. The timing of flowering is considered to be in the peak wildfire season. This may be a strategy to capitalize on the excellent reproductive and germination opportunities that follow a burn (TNC 1993).

Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Lead Institution State Reintroduction Type Year of First Outplanting

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