CPC Plant Profile: Bunched Arrowhead
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Plant Profile

Bunched Arrowhead (Sagittaria fasciculata)

This shot shows a bunched arrowhead and its flowers. Photo Credit: Rob Gardner
  • Global Rank: G2 - Imperiled
  • Legal Status: Federally Endangered
  • Family: Rosaceae
  • State: NC, SC
  • Nature Serve ID: 138698
  • Date Inducted in National Collection: 04/01/1990

Endemic to two counties of the Carolinas, this aquatic herb has a severely threatened habitat. The mountain bogs in which Sagittaria fasciculata occurs have been drained for residential development and pasture. In the few remaining suitable sites, the population growth of nearby cities presents the continual threat of disturbance. Several other rare plants share the restricted habitat of Sagittaria fasciculata, making the protection of these areas a top priority.

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Nature Serve Biotics
  • 05/02/2017

Endemic to a small area of the Carolinas and restricted to very specific aquatic habitat conditions, including continuous seepage. ?There are several on-going threats including land conversion, negative hydrological changes and exotic species. ?

  • 01/01/2010

Habitat destruction (drainage of seeps for residential/commercial development) Disturbance by livestock Competition with other species for space, nutrients (encroachment of woody spp., shading by exotic weeds) Change in water flow rates (USFWS 199

  • 01/01/2010

7 element occurrences in North Carolina, 26 element occurrences in South Carolina (USFWS 1983).

  • 01/01/2010

Newberry (1991) evaluated the effect of artificial reduction of interspecific competition on growth and reproduction, and performed demographic and longevity studies. Results showed that Sagittaria fasciculata is sensitive to changes in flow rates and silt deposition. Interspecific competition for light, nutrients and space was also found to be a major factor affecting growth and survival. Plants have been successfully grown by tissue culture by Valerie Pence at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanic Gardens.

  • 01/01/2010

The South Carolina Heritage Trust has begun efforts to protect a number of populations through agreements with landowners. In cooperation with Duke Power Company, they have also conducted experimental management of populations in a power line right-of-way. The Nature Conservancy of North Carolina and Southern Railway are cooperatively managing sites in NC, and the Nature Conservancy and General Electric Company have signed a similar management agreement. The North Carolina Plant Protection Program has conducted one site restoration and reintroduction in a historical mountain bog (USFWS 1983)

  • 01/01/2010

Research on reproductive biology Propagation and reintroduction studies Monitor existing populations, search for additional populations or sites suitable for reintroduction Weeding as a management strategy to reduce competition

  • 01/01/2010

Germination protocol needed.


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Taxon Sagittaria fasciculata
Authority E.O. Beal
Family Rosaceae
CPC Number 3791
ITIS 38918
Common Names bunched arrowhead | bunched brrowhead
Associated Scientific Names Sagittaria fasciculata | Sagittaria graminea Michx. var. macrocarpa (J.G. Sm.) Bogin | Sagittaria macrocarpa J.G. Sm.
Distribution Henderson County, North Carolina and Greenville County, South Carolina (USFWS 1983).
State Rank
State State Rank
North Carolina S2
South Carolina S2

Mountain bogs, partially shaded seeps with constant but moderate water flow, where it typically inhabits a narrow band at the bluff-floodplain ecotone (USFWS 1983).

Ecological Relationships

No evidence of reproduction by seed has been found; all plants in an area may be connected by underground rhizomes. (USFWS 1990)

Common Name Name in Text Association Type Source InteractionID
Lead Institution State Reintroduction Type Year of First Outplanting

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