There are sixty-four extant populations, clustered into a few ""metapopulations"" in small areas of the Coastal Plain of North Carolina (with one site in adjacent South Carolina). These probably include a low number of genetic individuals as the plants are clonal and sexual reproduction rates appear to be poor. There are sixteen extirpated populations and the species continues to decline due to landscape trends that are accelerating, especially fire suppression and recreational, industrial, and residential development. Using prescribed burns as a management tool is often difficult or prohibitively dangerous due to the typically high fuel loads within the shrubby pocosins. Where burning does occur, however, the species appears to be able to rebound vigorously - at one site, a sizeable population appeared only months after a fire went through an area that had previously been thick with 2 m tall shrubs.
Drainage and development of habitat
64 total extant populations (USFWS 1995).
Several new populations in Camp Lejeune, Fort Bragg, and Sunny Point Military Ocean Terminal in NC and Fort Jackson, SC.
Frantz (1983, 1984) studied aspects of basic and reproductive biology of Rough-leaved loosestrife.
Thorough surveys through North Carolina have been conducted.
Research has also been conducted through NCSU investigating changes in flowering stem distribution, pollinator behavior, and seed production following prescribed burns.
Most sites are under some sort of management (generally prescribed fire) by a Federal or State agency or a private conservation organization. These include The Nature Conservancy, the U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, NC State Parks, the NC Wildlife Resource Commission, and Carolina Power and Light (USFWS 1995)
Research needs include population biology studies such as flower incompatibility, artificial pollination, seed dispersal and establishment, genetic variability, and comparisons between individuals and groups of individuals (TNC 1999).
Management needs include more inclusive site protection and habitat management (prescribed fire).
Seed collection from all extant populations
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