Endemic to North and South Carolina. There are 63 extant occurrences known in NC, most of them along roadsides where they are difficult to protect. The species has lost much of its native habitat to forest succession due to the elimination of natural disturbances, and to conversion to pine plantations, and urbanization.
Conversion of habitat to pine plantations
Highway right-of-way maintenance
Small population size
Lack of formal protection for most known populations
10 populations in NC, 6 populations in SC (USFWS 2000)
Demographic study conducted by Larry Barden, funded by The Nature Conservancy and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Detailed mapping and monitoring of populations in South Carolina conducted by Richard Houk, funded by the South Carolina Natural Heritage Trust. The project also investigated conservation and management agreements with landowners.
Seed germination and seedling establishment studied both in the field (Larry Barden, UNC-Charlotte) and in an artificial population established at Winthrop University (Richard Houk).
Cooperative agreement between The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program and NC Department of Transportation to prevent the mowing of populations during the flowering and fruiting period--an unsuccessful effort as of 1994 (when Recovery Plan was published).
A few sites in NC are managed by The Nature Conservancy, where efforts have been geared toward cutting back or burning encroaching woody vegetation to eliminate or reduce shading and competition.
Surveys for additional populations
Protection and management of existing and restored sites
Further research on the biology of the species and on management practices for maintaining suitable habitat
Seed collection from populations not represented in collection.
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