Recorded from only a single location in Kalalau Valley, Kauai. This species was discovered in 1991, when a population of 4 trees was found. No additional plants have been located since then. No fruit set has yet been observed on the plants. The habitat of this species is being degraded by the presence of feral goats and pigs. The invasion of alien plants represents an additional threat.
Threats to H. woodii include:
habitat degradation by feral goats and pigs
competition from the invasive introduced plant species Erigeron karvinskianus (daisy fleabane)
nectar robbing by an introduced bird, the Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicu
Number of Populations: 1 (USFWS 2001)
Number of Plants: 2 (USFWS 2001)
The Lyon Arboretum has successfully propagated H. woodii by tissue culture (USFWS 1998).
There have been numerous attempts by NTBG to propagate H. woodii such as grafts, cuttings air layers, tissue culturing, and efforts to manually outcross and bag the flowers yet none of those attempts have proved successful. No viable seed has yet been collected (Wood et al. 2002)
1. Research on breeding biology is needed to ensure seed production.
2. Construct exclosures around two remaining trees along the stream in Limahuli Valley and the back of Hanakapiai Valley. Once the exclosures are constructed, the area should be managed by removing weeds such as Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry), Clidemia hirta (Kosters curse), and Lantana camara (lantana). Without enclosures, the population of H. woodii will continue to decline due to habitat degradation by feral pigs.
3. Conduct and encourage research to reduce the impacts of the Japanese white-eye.
4. Hunting to reduce feral ungulates and subsequent control of alien plant species. After the numbers of feral ungulates are reduced, alien plant control should be initiated.
5. Begin attempts to outplant H. woodii in protected areas.
6. Conduct pollination biology and seed dispersal studies.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin, M. Maunder, and USFWS (1998, 2000).
1. Establish secure ex situ stocks with full founder representation.
2. Develop proper horticultural protocols and pest management for H. woodii.
3. Survey ex situ holdings and conduct molecular fingerprinting.
Recommendations derived from M.H. Chapin and M. Maunder.
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