Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus

Common Names:
Kokio keokeo, koki'oke'oke'o, white Molokai hibiscus, Kokio keokeo
(M. Roe) D. Bates
Growth Habit:
Tree, Shrub
CPC Number:
Profile Contributors:
Fully Sponsored

Reference Links

ITIS - Tropicos - USDA Plants - Fish & WildLife

Participating Institutions

The following Participating Institutions are custodians for this species in the CPC National Collection:
National Tropical Botanical Garden

The conservation of Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus is fully sponsored.


There are eleven taxa of Hibiscus endemic to Hawaii, seven taxa are threatened with extinction and one is extinct. Hibiscus arnottianus is known for its beautiful white fragrant flowers. There are three recognized subspecies of H. arnottianus on the islands of Hawaii, and the subspecies immaculatus, found only in four populations on the island of Molokai, is considered to be the rarest of the three.

H. arnottianus subsp. immaculatus, a member of the hibiscus family (Malvaceae) is a tree up to three meters tall with alternate, oval, toothed leaves (5 to 7 cm long, 4 to 6.5 cm wide). The faintly fragrant flowers have white petals (8 to 11 cm long, 2.5 to 3.5 cm wide) with the calyx being 2.5 to 3 centimeters long. Anthers are arranged along the upper third of the white staminal column (10 to 14 cm long). This subspecies is distinguished from the other native Hawaiian members of its genus by its white petals and white staminal column (USFWS 1996).

Distribution & Occurrence


Conservation, Ecology & Research