Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii

Common Names:
C.P. Sm.
Growth Habit:
CPC Number:
Profile Contributors:
Christa von Behren and Ed Guerrant
Fully Sponsored

Reference Links

ITIS - Tropicos - USDA Plants - Fish & WildLife

Participating Institutions

The following Participating Institutions are custodians for this species in the CPC National Collection:
University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum

The conservation of Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii is fully sponsored.
Christa von Behren and Ed Guerrant contributed to this Plant Profile.


Kincaids lupine, like many other species, is suffering from rapid decline in suitable habitat. Conversion of Willamette and Douglas Valley grasslands to agricultural lands has reduced the lupine to 57 sites, most of which are small and isolated. Fenders blue butterfly, and endangered butterfly endemic to the Willamette Valley, is heavily reliant on Kincaids lupine. The importance of the lupine for the survival of the butterfly has made the plant an important conservation target.
Kincaids lupine has purple to white flowers that rapidly fade to brown. The plant flowers from April through June and is pollinated by insects. It is a low-growing plant that has been found to live as long as 25 years. While the lupine lacks vegetative propagules, distant flowering stalks are often connected by underground stems. Research suggests that this underground connection can lead to inbreeding when plants only receive pollen from within the same colony.
Invasive plants can cause problems for Kincaids lupine. The plant is intolerant of prolonged shade, and can easily be shaded out by these taller plants. Controlled burning and mowing of prairie plots are used to remove invasive species and restore lupine habitats. These techniques have been found to increase lupine cover in addition to the number of Fenders blue butterfly eggs found in the habitat.

Distribution & Occurrence


Conservation, Ecology & Research