The following Participating Institutions are custodians for this species in the CPC National Collection:
Missouri Botanical Garden
The conservation of Calamovilfa arcuata is fully sponsored.
Kimberlie McCue, Ph.D. contributed to this Plant Profile.
Calamovilfa arcuata is a flowering perennial grass that forms clumps between one to three feet wide. Although the plants grow along stream banks, too much water can be detrimental (Perkins and Patrick 1980). Several populations are thought to have been lost due to the construction of reservoirs (Taylor and Taylor 1980).
This species could be confused with the more common switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or purpletop (Tridens flavus), both of which occur in similar habitats as the Cumberland sandreed. This rare species can be identified by its denser, drooping inflorescences that flower in August and September. It can also be distinguished from purpletop because the inflorescences of purpletop are covered with a sticky, odorous substances while those of Cumberland sandreed. (Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory 1999)
Distribution & Occurrence
Open areas along rocky stream banks or stream beds, intermittent rocky drainage areas among large rocks, areas showing evidence of natural disturbance due to water flow (Perkins and Patrick 1980, Taylor and Taylor 1980).
C. arcuata is associated with Mixed hardwood species such as hemlock, yellow pine, alder, dogwood, willow, Andropogon and Panicum mixed grasses (Perkins and Patrick 1980, Taylor and Taylor 1980).
|The total number of populations is unknown, however, there are typically only a few individuals at any given site.|
Conservation, Ecology & Research
Physical alteration of river banks, sand bars, and natural stream flow should be avoided. Logging operations should be confined to areas outside riparian buffer zones. Livestock grazing should also be reduced in areas where Cumberland sandreed grows (Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory 1999).
Research needs include understanding reproductive biology and life history traits.
Bailey, C.J., Jr.; Coe, F.G. 2001. The vascular flora of the riparian zones of the Clear Fork River and the New River in the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BSFNRRA). Castanea. 66, 3: 252-274.
Rogers, K.E. 1970. A new species of Calamovilfa (Gramineae) from North America. Rhodora. 72: 72-80.
Schmalzer, P.A.; Patrick, T.S.; Deselm, H.R. 1985. Vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River Tennessee USA. Castanea. 50, 2: 71-88.