Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus
|Ma`o hau hele, Ma'o Hau Hele|
|(M. Roe) D. Bates|
The following Participating Institutions are custodians for this species in the CPC National Collection:
The conservation of Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianus is fully sponsored.
David Orr contributed to this Plant Profile.
Hibiscus brackenridgei is Hawai`i's State flower and a member of the mallow family (Malvaceae). It is a sprawling shrub to small tree with beautiful yellow flowers with a maroon spot in the center. Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. mokuleianusis currently known only from 5 populations with a total of 100-300 plants. They are found on the island of O`ahu scattered in the Waianae Mountains in lowland dry to mesic forest and shrubland. It was once thought to have occurred on Kaua`i from Lihue and Olokele Canyon.
Threats such as habitat degradation and possible predation by pigs, goats, deer and cattle; competition with alien plant species; road construction; fire and random naturally occurring events have significantly reduced the number of populations and plant numbers and some cases extinction in some areas.
Distribution & Occurrence
Occurs in lowland dry to mesic forest and shrubland from 120-240 meters in elevation (USFWS 1999) and (Wagner et al. 1999).
|Oahu-Puu Pane to Kealia-Kawaihapai, 3 populations.
Oahu-Dillinham Military Reservation, 1 population, 3 individuals
Oahu- Between Dupont Trail and Puu Iki, 1 population.
Approximately 100-300 individuals total are known to remain.
(USFWS 1999, 2001)
Conservation, Ecology & Research
Alien plant species
Low number of individuals
(USFWS 1999, 2001)
In April, 2002, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined that a designation of critical habitat was prudent for this species. (USFWS 2002)
Control competing alien plant species.
Enhance wild populations and establish new populations.
Protect from fire.
Monitoring of existing plants.
Control feral and wild ungulates.
Ex situ plantings in botanical gardens.
Increase genetic stock through propagation.
Garnett, W.G. 1988. Plant Profile: Hibiscus brackenridgei A. Gray subsp. mokuleianus (M. Roe) D. Bates. Notes from Waimea Arboretum & Botanical Garden. 15, 2: 6-7.
Herbst, D.R.; Wagner, W.L. 1999. Contributions to the flora of Hawaii. VII. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. No. 58: 12-36.
Wilson, F.D. 1993. Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae) in islands of the Pacific Basin. Brittonia. 45: 275-285.