The following Participating Institutions are custodians for this species in the CPC National Collection:
The conservation of Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. brackenridgei is fully sponsored.
David Orr contributed to this Plant Profile.
Hibiscus brackenridgei is Hawai`i's State flower and a member of the mallow family (Malvaceae). It is a sprawling shrub to small tree with beautiful yellow flowers with a maroon spot in the center. Hibiscus brackenridgei ssp. brackenridgei is currently known only from 7 populations with a total of less than 60 plants. They are found on the islands of Hawai`i, Maui and Lana`i in lowland dry to mesic forest and shrubland.
Threats such as habitat degradation and possible predation by pigs, goats, deer and cattle; competition with alien plant species; road construction; fire and random naturally occurring events have significantly reduced the number of populations and plant numbers and some cases extinction in some areas.
Distribution & Occurrence
Lowland dry to mesic forest and shrubland from sea level up to 370 meters in elevation (USFWS 1999) and (Wagner et al. 1999).
Lanai-Near Keomuku Road.
West Maui-Kaunohua Gulch and the West Maui Natural Area Reserve
East Maui- Near Puu o Kali and
| Lana`i-1 population
Less than 60 plants total remain.
(USFWS 1999, 2001)
Conservation, Ecology & Research
Alien plant species
Low number of individuals
(USFWS 1999, 2001)
Fenced exclosure of Kaunohua Gulch, Maui population.
In April, 2002, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service determined that a designation of critical habitat was prudent for this species. (USFWS 2002)
Control competing alien plant species.
Enhance wild populations and establish new populations.
Protect from fire.
Monitoring of existing plants.
Control feral and wild ungulates.
Ex situ plantings in botanical gardens.
Increase genetic stock through propagation.