|Eastern fournerved daisy, four-nerved starflower, Lakeside daisy, Manitoulin gold, stemless hymenoxys, stemless rubberweed|
|Dawn M. Gerlica|
The following Participating Institutions are custodians for this species in the CPC National Collection:
The Holden Arboretum
The conservation of Tetraneuris herbacea is fully sponsored.
Dawn M. Gerlica contributed to this Plant Profile.
Tetraneuris herbacea is a stunning plant, both in its flower and its ability to survive. From late April to mid-May a carpet of sunny yellow flowers can be seen covering limestone pavement of the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve, near the town of Lakeside, Ohio. The flowers all turn to follow the path of the sun across the sky. The 5-25 cm tall plants produce one or more, 5-30 cm tall, leafless stalks with a single flower. The flower is a composite with 10-30 double notched golden petals. The center disk is also yellow and 1-2 cm across. The blooms last for about a week and seeds disperse like dandelions, a month later. T. herbacea also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes from its thick taproot. The lance-like leaves are all basal as well as thick and rubbery, which may be where one of the other common names, rubberweed, originated.
The plant was last known to occur naturally in Illinois in 1981 when the site owned by Commonwealth Edison Power Company was used for storage of several tons of coal. Three plants were removed before destruction of this site and have been the basis for all plant research from this population since. Even before the site was destroyed the population was effectively extinct. Studies from 1970-79 found no viable seed production because the 20-30 remaining plants were genetically too close to reproduce.
Distribution & Occurrence
This plant is known to exist primarily in the alvars, limestone or dolomitic bedrock based grasslands with thin soils, of the Great Lakes region. Alvar communities are also rare and often threatened by quarrying and development which adds to the difficulties for this plant. It is also known from limestone prairies and sunny openings in cedar woodlands. These communities are naturally alkaline and often range from wet in the spring and fall to extremely dry in the summer. Areas where Tetraneuris herbacea appears are often sparsely inhabited by other native plants, which allow them exposure to full sun. (USFWS 1990)
|20 extant populations are known in Ontario on the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island (NatureServe 2001) including the following areas:
Dyers Bay Road/Brinkmans Corners
East side of Quarry Bay
West of Lynn Point
Christina Bay/ Burnt Island Harbor
In 1994, fieldwork in Canada located at least 5 populations with at least 10,000 plants and several smaller populations within the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island.
Marblehead Quarry/Lakeside Plains, Ohio - Mackinac County, Michigan - Hiawatha National Forest - first collected in 1996 unknown population size (Voss 1996)
Conservation, Ecology & Research
Habitat destruction by recreational activities, foot traffic, construction, etc.
DeMauro’s research crossed some plants from Illinois and Ohio which were used along with Ohio and Canada progeny to repopulate quality habitats in Illinois from the historic range of the species. Initial planting occurred in 1988 at three nature preserves: Lockport Prairie, and Romeoville Prairie in Will county and Manito Prairie in Tazewell county. (Recovery plan 1990)
In Ohio, in 1989, 200 plants were collected from different areas within Marblehead Quarry. These plants were used to start a population within one of two abandoned quarries owned by ODNR on Kelleys Island, Ohio. 40,000 seeds were collected from Marblehead and broadcast into the Lakeside Daisy State Nature Preserve in Ohio and two experimental plots at the other ODNR quarry. (Recovery plan 1990)
No suggestions found
Exotic species control. Although most native species cannot survive long in the harsh climate where this species grows, exotic species are getting a foothold and competing. (USFWS 1990)
Herbivore control. Rabbits, deer and other predatory herbivores need to be managed. (USFWS 1990)
Seed ecology. Seed bank roles as well as seed viability, dispersal, and seed herbivory would be useful for understanding population maintenance. (USFWS 1990)
Fisher, R.T. 1988. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 3. Asteraceae. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 280p.